When young inventor came up with compact conveyance, it had to be a monowheel, monocycle, in other words. Some time later, it merged up that one wheel is not enough. So, then appeared "incorrect" 2-wheel monocycle, but iat was also imperfect...And recently, due to last modernization, the number of wheels changed again.
Amazing spiral of evolution was demonstrated by inventor from Canada Ben Gulak and his American company BPG-Motors. 3 wheels of their personal transport not just rotate, but also move at their own leisure. And this is bunching of parts. This complication appeared as continuation of moto "throw out all unnecessary"!
The idea of electric one-wheel vehicle with motorbike seat comes from ancient concept of Bombardier EMBRIO, which was also invented invented in Canada. The virtual model of "Embrio" was shown in 2003, givin a handle for jokes. People laughed saying that vehicles wouldn't have wheels in the future.
In theory, one wheel is more than enough: here is density, flexibility, ultramodern layout and many other things. There was no specific dispute about technical feasibility, because the ability to counterpoise was proved by monoaxial scooter Segway.
The work of vehicles mentioned above lies quite simple principle: gyro sensors track the slope, electronics reflects, electromotors do. But development of any self balancing tech is engineering act of valour, which was commited by Ben Gulak in 2007 by creating first prototype of Uno. That prototype already had 2 wheels, but visually they almost run into one another (technically, this is a dicycle).
In 2008, Benjamin transformed the initial project. New generation of Uno, which had similar construction, was more suitable for mass production and had absolutely marketable state, but...
Alas, a person riding the second generation of Uno can't get rid of sense that by hard braking he will fall over handlebar. And all Ben's electronic subtleties can't protect the invention from physical law. The vehicle must be ridden carefully, but the Canadian wanted normal speed.
Of course, he found solution. The evolved Uno was equipped with longitudinal bearer, along of whic 2 wheeld could move back and forth as far as speed gained. This way the monocycle transofrmed into ordinary electric motorbike.
This added confidence and reliability. But the vehicle became more complicated, heavy and large. But, in comparison with ordinary monocycle it still looked more compact, but its advantage in maneuverability (in combined wheels mode) was quite illusive. It is hard to imagine the place in city, where ordinary motorbike or scooter couldn't make a U-turn. But really Ben dcided to ride Uno inside building?
Adding symmetry to scheme with sprawling wheels, the Canadian made a remarkable three-wheel "monocycle". But it can called "mono" until the bike speeds up to 24 km/h. Ath this speed the electrobike starts transforming.
The process is impressing. All three wheels just rotated side by side, working as one wide wheel. But then the wheel in the middle moves forth, and two others move back.
Gulak confessed, that process of ride mode shifting is "very scary" for Uno rider. All happens within second. But the inventor's team works on mechanism checkout and response algorithm. The novator assures that final variant will be perfect.
But the question, whether this is an evolutionary dead end or ingenious insight, can answer only those, who bought Uno.
The final version of transforming motorcycle called Uno III Streetbike. Its maximum speed is 48 km/h, the bike covers 56 km on one charge, time of recharge is 3-4 hours.